48: On landing in Egypt, Pompey is murdered on the orders of Ptolemy.
855: The Emperor Lothar dies in Gaul, and his kingdom is divided between his three sons.
1066: William, Duke of Normandy, soon to be known as William the Conqueror, invades England.
1106: King Henry of England defeats his brother Robert at the Battle of Tinchebrai and reunites England and Normandy.
1238: James of Aragon retakes Valencia, Spain, from the Arabs.
1607: Samuel de Champlain and his colonists return to France from Port Royal, Nova Scotia.
1794: The Anglo-Russian-Austrian Alliance of St. Petersburg, which is directed against France, is signed.
1864: Union Gen. William Rosecrans blames his defeat at Chickamauga on two of his subordinate generals. They are later exonerated by a court of inquiry.
1874: Col. Ronald Mackenzie raids a war camp of Comanche and Kiowa at the Battle of Palo Duro Canyon, Texas, slaughtering 2,000 of their horses.
1904: A woman is placed under arrest for smoking a cigarette on New York’s Fifth Avenue.
1912: W.C. Handy’s “Memphis Blues” is published.
1913: Race riots in Harriston, Mississippi, kill 10 people.
1924: Three U.S. Army aircraft arrive in Seattle, Washington, after completing a 22-day round-the-world flight.
1928: Sir Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin when he notices a bacteria-killing mold growing in his laboratory; it remained for Howard Florey and Ernst Chain to isolate the active ingredient, allowing the “miracle drug” to be developed in the 1940s.
1939: Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union agree on a division of Poland; Warsaw surrenders to German troops.
1958: France ratifies a new constitution.
1959: Explorer VI, the U.S. satellite, takes the first video pictures of Earth.
1961: A military coup in Damascus ends the Egypt-Syria union known as the United Arab Republic that was formed Feb. 1, 1958.
1963: Roy Lichtenstein’s pop art work “Whaam!,” depicting in comic-book style a U.S. jet shooting down an enemy fighter, is exhibited for the first time; it will become one of the best known examples of pop art.
1995: Israel’s Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) leader Yasser Arafat sign an interim agreement concerning settlement on the Gaza Strip.
1996: Afghanistan’s former president (1986-92) Mohammad Najibullah is tortured and murdered by the Taliban.
2008: SpaceX launches the first private spacecraft, Falcon 1.
Born on September 28
1820: Friedrich Engels, socialist who collaborated with Karl Marx on “The Communist Manifesto” and “Das Kapital.”
1901: Ed Sullivan, television host.
1909: Al Capp, cartoonist who created the “Li’l Abner” comic strip.
1915: Ethel Rosenberg, who, with her husband, Julius, became one of the first American civilians executed for espionage.
1924: Marcello Mastroianni, Italian actor (“La Dolce Vita,” “8 1/2”).
1934: Brigitte Bardot, French actress.
1938: Koko Taylor, blues singer.
1938: Ben E. King, lead singer of The Drifters and composer of “Spanish Harlem” and “Stand by Me.”
1939: Stuart Kauffman, theoretical biologist renowned for his work in studying the origin of life and origins of molecular organization.
1943: Winston “Win” Percy, three-time British Touring Car champion, regarded by many as the World’s No. 1 touring car driver.
1960: Jennifer Rush, singer, songwriter (“The Power of Love”).