1302: An army of French knights, led by the Count of Artois, is routed by Flemish pikemen.
1346: Charles IV of Luxembourg is elected Holy Roman Emperor in Germany.
1533: Henry VIII is excommunicated from the Catholic Church by Pope Clement VII.
1708: The French are defeated at Oudenarde, Malplaquet, in the Netherlands by the Duke of Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy.
1786: Morocco agrees to stop attacking American ships in the Mediterranean for a payment of $10,000.
1799: An Anglo-Turkish armada bombards Napoleon Bonaparte’s troops in Alexandria to no avail.
1804: Alexander Hamilton is mortally wounded by Aaron Burr in a duel.
1862: President Abraham Lincoln appoints Gen. Henry Halleck as general-in-chief of the Federal army.
1942: In the Royal Air Force’s longest bombing raid of World War II, 44 British Lancaster bombers attack the Polish port of Danzig.
1972: American forces break the 95-day siege at An Loc in Vietnam.
1975: Archaeologists unearth an army of 8,000 life-size clay figures created more than 2,000 years ago for the Emperor Qin Shi Huang.
1995: Full diplomatic relations are established between the United States and Vietnam.
Born on July 11
1274: Robert the Bruce, king of Scotland (1306-1329).
1767: John Quincy Adams, sixth president of the United States (1825-1829).
1838: John Wanamaker, U.S. merchant, founder of one of the first American department stores.
1899: E.B. White, author (“Charlotte’s Web”).
1927: Theodore H. Maiman, physicist.