July 11

1302: An army of French knights, led by the Count of Artois, is routed by Flemish pikemen.

1346: Charles IV of Luxembourg is elected Holy Roman Emperor in Germany.

1533: Henry VIII is excommunicated from the Catholic Church by Pope Clement VII.

1708: The French are defeated at Oudenarde, Malplaquet, in the Netherlands by the Duke of Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy.

1786: Morocco agrees to stop attacking American ships in the Mediterranean for a payment of $10,000.

1799: An Anglo-Turkish armada bombards Napoleon Bonaparte’s troops in Alexandria to no avail.

1804: Alexander Hamilton is mortally wounded by Aaron Burr in a duel.

1862: President Abraham Lincoln appoints Gen. Henry Halleck as general-in-chief of the Federal army.

1942: In the Royal Air Force’s longest bombing raid of World War II, 44 British Lancaster bombers attack the Polish port of Danzig.

1972: American forces break the 95-day siege at An Loc in Vietnam.

1975: Archaeologists unearth an army of 8,000 life-size clay figures created more than 2,000 years ago for the Emperor Qin Shi Huang.

1995: Full diplomatic relations are established between the United States and Vietnam.

Born on July 11

1274: Robert the Bruce, king of Scotland (1306-1329).

1767: John Quincy Adams, sixth president of the United States (1825-1829).

1838: John Wanamaker, U.S. merchant, founder of one of the first American department stores.

1899: E.B. White, author (“Charlotte’s Web”).

1927: Theodore H. Maiman, physicist.

Johnson Newspapers 7.1

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