1189: After the death of Henry II, Richard Lionheart is crowned king of England.
1260: Mamelukes under Sultan Qutuz defeat Mongols and Crusaders at Ain Jalut.
1346: Edward III of England begins the siege of Calais, along the coast of France.
1650: The English under Oliver Cromwell defeat a superior Scottish army under David Leslie at the Battle of Dunbar.
1777: The American flag (stars and stripes), approved by Congress on June 14th, is carried into battle for the first time by a force under Gen. William Maxwell.
1783: The Treaty of Paris is signed by Great Britain and the new United States, formally bringing the American Revolution to an end.
1838: Frederick Douglass escapes slavery disguised as a sailor. He would later write “The Narrative Life of Frederick Douglass,” his memoirs about slave life.
1855: Gen. William Harney defeats Little Thunder’s Brule Sioux at the Battle of Blue Water in Nebraska.
1895: The first professional American football game is played in Latrobe, Pennsylvania, between the Latrobe Young Men’s Christian Association and the Jeannette Athletic Club. Latrobe wins 12-0.
1914: The French capital is moved from Paris to Bordeaux as the Battle of the Marne begins.
1916: The German Somme front is broken by an Allied offensive.
1918: The United States recognizes the nation of Czechoslovakia.
1939: After Germany ignores Great Britain’s ultimatum to stop the invasion of Poland, Great Britain declares war on Germany, marking the beginning of World War II in Europe.
1939: The British passenger ship Athenia is sunk by a German submarine in the Atlantic, with 30 Americans among those killed. American Secretary of State Cordell Hull warns Americans to avoid travel to Europe unless absolutely necessary.
1943: British troops invade Italy, landing at Calabria.
1944: The U.S. Seventh Army captures Lyons, France.
1945: Gen. Tomoyuki Yamashita, the Japanese commander of the Philippines, surrenders to Lt. Gen. Jonathan Wainwright at Baguio.
1967: Lt. Gen. Nguyen Van Thieu is elected president of South Vietnam.
1969: Ho Chi Minh, the leader of North Vietnam, dies.
1976: The unmanned U.S. spacecraft Viking 2 lands on Mars, takes the first close-up, color photos of the planet’s surface.
1981: Egypt arrests some 1,500 opponents of the government.
1989: The U.S. begins shipping military aircraft and weapons to Columbia for use against that country’s drug lords.
1994: Russia and China sign a demarcation agreement to end dispute over a stretch of their border and agree they will no longer target each other with nuclear weapons.
2001: Protestant loyalists in Belfast, Ireland, begin an 11-week picket of the Holy Cross Catholic school for girls, sparking rioting.
Born on September 3
1849: Sarah Orne Jewett, author (“Tales of New England,” “The Country of the Pointed Firs”).
1856: Louis H. Sullivan, architect who gained fame for his design of the Chicago Auditorium Theater.
1875: Ferdinand Porsche, automotive engineer, designer of the Volkswagen in 1934 and the Porsche sports car in 1950.
1894: Richard Niebuhr, theologian.
1907: Carl Anderson, physicist and 1936 Nobel prize winner for his discovery of the positron.
1914: Dixie Lee Ray, chair of the Atomic Energy Commission who received the U.N. Peace Prize in 1977.
1927: Hugh Sidey, news correspondent and author of “John F. Kennedy, President.”
1931: Albert Henry DeSalvo, a serial killer and rapist known as the “Boston Strangler”; though he confessed to 13 murders, debate continues over which crimes he actually committed.
1932: Eileen Brennan, actress; won Golden Globe and Emmy for her role in the TV adaptation of “Private Benjamin.”
1942: Alan Charles “Al” Jardine, musician, composer, vocalist, member of Rock and Roll Hall of Fame; founding member of the band The Beach Boys.
1949: Petros VII (Petros Papapetrou), Greek Orthodox pope and patriarch of Alexandria and all Africa (1997–2004).
1964: Adam Curry, co-founder of Mevio Inc., internet entertainment company.
1965: Charlie Sheen (Carlos Irwin Estevez), actor (“Platoon,” “Two and a Half Men” TV series).
1976: Ashley Jones, actress (“True Blood” and “The Young and the Restless” TV series).
1981: Fearne Cotton, English radio and television presenter.