312: Constantine the Great defeats Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius at the Mulvian Bridge.
969: After a prolonged siege, the Byzantines end 300 years of Arab rule in Antioch.
1216: Henry III of England is crowned.
1628: After a 15-month siege, the Huguenot town of La Rochelle surrenders to royal forces.
1636: Harvard College, the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, is founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
1768: Germans and Acadians join French Creoles in their armed revolt against the Spanish governor of New Orleans.
1793: Eli Whitney applies for a patent on the cotton gin, a machine that cleans the tight-clinging seeds from short-staple cotton easily and effectively--a job which was previously done by hand.
1863: In a rare night attack, Confederates under Gen. James Longstreet attack a Federal force near Chattanooga, Tennessee, hoping to cut their supply line, the “cracker line.” They fail.
1886: The Statue of Liberty, originally named Liberty Enlightening the World, is dedicated at Liberty Island, New York, formerly Bedloe’s Island, by President Grover Cleveland
1901: Race riots sparked by Booker T. Washington’s visit to the White House kill 34.
1904: St. Louis police try a new investigation method –– fingerprints.
1914: George Eastman announces the invention of the color photographic process.
1914: The German cruiser Emden, disguised as a British ship, steams into Penang Harbor near Malaya and sinks the Russian light cruiser Zhemchug.
1919: Over President Woodrow Wilson’s veto, Congress passes the National Prohibition Act, or Volstead Act, named after its promoter, congressman Andrew J. Volstead. It provides enforcement guidelines for the Prohibition Amendment.
1927: Pan American Airways launches the first scheduled international flight.
1940: Italy invades Greece, launching six divisions on four fronts from occupied Albania.
1944: The first B-29 Superfortress bomber mission flies from the airfields in the Mariana Islands in a strike against the Japanese base at Truk.
1960: In a note to the Organization of American States, the United States charges that Cuba has been receiving substantial quantities of arms and multiple military technicians from the Soviet bloc.
1962: Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev orders Soviet missiles removed from Cuba, ending the Cuban Missile Crisis.
1965: Construction is completed on St. Louis Arch; at 630 feet (192m), it is the world’s tallest arch.
1971: Britain launches the satellite Prospero into orbit, using a Black Arrow carrier rocket; this is the first and so far only British satellite launched by a British rocket.
1982: The Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party wins election, giving Spain its first Socialist government since the death of right-wing President Francisco Franco.
2005: I. Lewis “Scooter” Libby, chief of staff to Vice President Dick Cheney, resigns after being indicted for “outing” CIA agent Valerie Plame.
2007: Argentina elects its first woman president, Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner.
Born on October 28
1875: Gilbert Grosvenor, editor, turned the National Geographic Society’s irregularly published pamphlet into a periodical with a circulation of nearly 2 million.
1896: Howard Hansen, composer, director of the Eastman School of music.
1903: Evelyn Waugh, English novelist who wrote “Decline and Fall” and “Brideshead Revisited.”
1909: Francis Bacon, English artist who painted expressionist portraits.
1912: Richard Doll, English epidemiologist who established a link between tobacco smoke and cancer.
1914: Jonas Salk, U.S. scientist who developed the first vaccine against polio.
1926: Bowie Kuhn, commissioner of Major League Baseball (1969–1984).
1936: Charlie Daniels, country/Southern rock singer, songwriter, musician (“The Devil Went Down to Georgia”).
1938: Anne Perry, an author of historical detective fiction, she was herself convicted at age 15 of aiding in the murder of a friend’s mother in New Zealand; their crime was the basis for the 1994 film “Heavenly Creatures.”
1944: Anton Schlecker, founder of the Schlecker Co., which operated retail stores across Europe.
1949: Bruce (now Caitlyn) Jenner, athlete, actor; won gold medal in the Decathlon at the Summer Olympics in Montreal (1976).
1951: Joe R. Lansdale, author (“Hap and Leonard” novel series, “Bubba Ho-Tep”); won World Horror Convention Grand Master Award 2007.
1955: William “Bill” Gates, the chairman and CEO of Microsoft Corp., the world’s largest software firm.
1967: Sophie, Hereditary Princess of Liechtenstein.
1967: Julia Roberts, actress (“Pretty Woman,” “Steel Magnolias”; won Academy Award for Best Actress in “Erin Brockovich”).
1967: John Romero, game designer, developer; co-founded id Software (Doom, Quake).
1972: Brad Paisley, country/Southern rock singer, songwriter, musician (“I’m Gonna Miss Her,” “Letter to Me”); his many awards include the Country Music Association’s Entertainer of the Year 2010.