1619: The House of Burgesses convenes for the first time at Jamestown, Virginia.
1787: The French parliament refuses to approve a more equitable land tax.
1799: The French garrison at Mantua, Italy, surrenders to the Austrians.
1864: In an effort to penetrate the Confederate lines around Petersburg, Virginia, Union troops detonate a mine underneath the Confederate trenches but fail to break through. The ensuing action is known as the Battle of the Crater.
1919: Federal troops are called out to put down Chicago race riots.
1938: George Eastman demonstrates his color motion picture process.
1940: A bombing lull ends the first phase of the Battle of Britain.
1960: Over 60,000 Buddhists march in protest against the Diem government in South Vietnam.
1965: President Lyndon Johnson signs the Medicare bill into law.
1967: Gen. William Westmoreland claims that he is winning the war in Vietnam, but needs more men.
1975: Teamster leader Jimmy Hoffa disappears, last seen coming out of a restaurant in Bloomingfield Hills, Michigan.
1988: King Hussein dissolves Jordan’s Parliament, surrenders Jordan’s claims to the West Bank to the Palestinian Liberation Organization.
1990: Baseball Commissioner Fay Vincent forces George Steinbrenner to resign as principal partner of the New York Yankees.
2003: The last of the uniquely shaped “old style” Volkswagen Beetles rolls off the assembly line in Mexico.
2012: A blackout in India leaves 300 million-plus without power as a power grid fails.
Born on July 30
1818: Emily Bronte, author (“Wuthering Heights”).
1857: Thorstein Veblen, economist and sociologist (“The Theory of the Leisure Class”).
1863: Henry Ford, founder of the Ford Motor Company.
1889: Casey Stengel, New York Yankees manager.
1898: Henry Moore, English sculptor.
1909: C. Northcote Parkinson, historian and author.
1924: William H. Gass, writer (“Omensetter’s Luck”).
1940: Patricia Schroeder, U.S. congresswoman.
1941: Paul Anka, singer (“Puppy Love,” “You Are My Destiny”).
1945: David Sanborn, Grammy-winning jazz saxophonist (“Inside,” “Close-Up”).
1947: Arnold Schwarzenegger, body builder (Mr. Universe, seven-time Mr. Olympia), actor (“The Terminator,” “Total Recall”), 38th governor of California.
1958: Kate Bush, singer, songwriter; first woman to have a U.K. No. 1 single with a self-written song (“Wuthering Heights”); appointed Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, 2013.
1961: Laurence Fishburne, actor (“The Matrix” series, “The Tuskegee Airmen” TV movie, “CSI - Crime Scene Investigation” TV series).