1099: The Crusaders launch their final assault on Jerusalem.
1534: Ottoman armies capture Tabriz in northwestern Persia.
1558: Led by the Count of Egmont, the Spanish army defeats the French at Gravelines, France.
1585: A group of 108 English colonists, led by Sir Richard Grenville, reaches Roanoke Island, North Carolina.
1643: In England, the Roundheads, led by Sir William Waller, are defeated by Royalist troops under Lord Wilmot in the Battle of Roundway Down.
1754: George Washington surrenders Fort Necessity to the French, leaving them in control of the Ohio Valley.
1787: Congress, under the Articles of Confederation, enacts the Northwest Ordinance, establishing rules for governing the Northwest Territory, for admitting new states to the Union and limiting the expansion of slavery.
1798: English poet William Wordsworth visits the ruins of Tintern Abbey.
1832: Henry Schoolcraft discovers the source of the Mississippi River in Minnesota.
1862: Confederate Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest defeats a Union army at Murfreesboro, Tennessee.
1863: Opponents of the draft begin three days of rioting in New York City.
1866: The Great Eastern begins a two week voyage to complete a 12-year effort to lay telegraph cable across the Atlantic between Britain and the United States.
1878: The Congress of Berlin divides the Balkans among European powers.
1939: Frank Sinatra records his first song, “From the Bottom of My Heart,” with the Harry James Band.
1941: Britain and the Soviet Union sign a mutual aid pact, providing the means for Britain to send war materiel to the Soviet Union.
1954: In Geneva, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, the People’s Republic of China and France reach an accord on Indochina, dividing Vietnam into two countries, North and South, along the 17th parallel.
1971: The Army of Morocco executes 10 leaders accused of leading a revolt.
Born on July 13
1793: John Clare, English poet.
1886: Edward J. Flanagan, Catholic priest, founder of Boys’ Town.
1928: Robert N.C. Nix, Jr., first African American chief justice of a state supreme court.
1933: David Storey, English novelist (“The Sporting Life”).
1934: Wole Soyinka, Nobel Prize-winning Nigerian playwright.
1935: Jack Kemp, football player, politician.