1520: The Spanish explorer Hernan Cortes is driven from Tenochtitlan and retreats to Tlaxcala.
1609: The Catholic states in Germany set up a league under the leadership of Maximilian of Bavaria.
1679: The British crown claims New Hampshire as a royal colony.
1776: The statue of King George III is pulled down in New York City.
1778: In support of the American Revolution, Louis XVI declares war on England.
1850: Millard Fillmore is sworn in as the 13th president of the United States following the death of Zachary Taylor.
1890: Wyoming becomes the 44th state.
1893: Dr. Daniel Hale Williams performs the first successful open-heart surgery, without the benefit of penicillin or blood transfusion.
1925: The trial of Tennessee teacher John T. Scopes opens, with Clarence Darrow appearing for the defense and William Jennings Bryan for the prosecution.
1940: Germany begins the bombing of England.
1942: Gen. Carl Spaatz becomes the head of the U.S. Air Force in Europe.
1943: American and British forces complete their amphibious landing of Sicily.
1945: U.S. carrier-based aircraft begin airstrikes against Japan in preparation for invasion.
1951: Armistice talks between the United Nations and North Korea begin at Kaesong.
1960: Belgium sends troops to the Congo to protect whites as the Congolese Bloodbath begins, just 10 days after the former colony became independent of Belgian rule.
1962: The satellite Telstar is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, beaming live television from Europe to the United States.
1965: “”(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction” becomes the Rolling Stones’ first No. 1 single in the USA.
1967: Singer Bobbie Gentry records “Ode to Billie Joe,” which will become a country music classic and win four Grammys.
1976: In Seveso, near Milan, Italy, an explosion in a chemical factory covers the surrounding area with toxic dioxin. Time magazine has ranked the Seveso incident No. 8 on its list of the 10 worst environmental disasters.
1985: Coca-Cola Co. announces it will resume selling “old formula Coke,” following a public outcry and falling sales of its “new Coke.”
1991: Boris Yeltsin is sworn in as the first elected president of the Russian Federation, following the breakup of the USSR.
1993: Kenyan runner Yobes Ondieki becomes the first man to run 10,000 meters in less than 27 minutes.
Born on July 10
1509: John Calvin, Protestant religious leader, founder of Calvinism.
1830: Camille Pissarro, French painter.
1834: James Abbott McNeill Whistler, painter.
1871: Marcel Proust, French novelist (“Remembrance of Things Past”).
1875: Mary McLeod Bethune, educator, founder of Bethune-Cookman College and the National Council of Negro Women.
1905: Ivie Anderson, jazz singer.
1915: Saul Bellow, writer.
1920: David Brinkley, broadcaster.
1927: David Dinkins, first African American mayor of New York City.
1931: Alice Munro, Canadian writer (“Open Secrets,” “Friend of my Youth”).
1933: Jerry Herman, songwriter.
1943: Arthur Ashe, American tennis player.
1947: Folk singer Arlo Guthrie (“Alice’s Restaurant,” “City of New Orleans”), son of Woody Guthrie.
1965: Alexia, princess of Greece and Denmark.
1980: Adam Petty, race driver, first fourth-generation driver in NASCAR history; his death in 2000 contributed to NASCAR’s decision to mandate a kill switch on steering wheels.