July 10

1520: The Spanish explorer Hernan Cortes is driven from Tenochtitlan and retreats to Tlaxcala.

1609: The Catholic states in Germany set up a league under the leadership of Maximilian of Bavaria.

1679: The British crown claims New Hampshire as a royal colony.

1776: The statue of King George III is pulled down in New York City.

1778: In support of the American Revolution, Louis XVI declares war on England.

1850: Millard Fillmore is sworn in as the 13th president of the United States following the death of Zachary Taylor.

1890: Wyoming becomes the 44th state.

1893: Dr. Daniel Hale Williams performs the first successful open-heart surgery, without the benefit of penicillin or blood transfusion.

1925: The trial of Tennessee teacher John T. Scopes opens, with Clarence Darrow appearing for the defense and William Jennings Bryan for the prosecution.

1940: Germany begins the bombing of England.

1942: Gen. Carl Spaatz becomes the head of the U.S. Air Force in Europe.

1943: American and British forces complete their amphibious landing of Sicily.

1945: U.S. carrier-based aircraft begin airstrikes against Japan in preparation for invasion.

1951: Armistice talks between the United Nations and North Korea begin at Kaesong.

1960: Belgium sends troops to the Congo to protect whites as the Congolese Bloodbath begins, just 10 days after the former colony became independent of Belgian rule.

1962: The satellite Telstar is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, beaming live television from Europe to the United States.

1965: “”(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction” becomes the Rolling Stones’ first No. 1 single in the USA.

1967: Singer Bobbie Gentry records “Ode to Billie Joe,” which will become a country music classic and win four Grammys.

1976: In Seveso, near Milan, Italy, an explosion in a chemical factory covers the surrounding area with toxic dioxin. Time magazine has ranked the Seveso incident No. 8 on its list of the 10 worst environmental disasters.

1985: Coca-Cola Co. announces it will resume selling “old formula Coke,” following a public outcry and falling sales of its “new Coke.”

1991: Boris Yeltsin is sworn in as the first elected president of the Russian Federation, following the breakup of the USSR.

1993: Kenyan runner Yobes Ondieki becomes the first man to run 10,000 meters in less than 27 minutes.

Born on July 10

1509: John Calvin, Protestant religious leader, founder of Calvinism.

1830: Camille Pissarro, French painter.

1834: James Abbott McNeill Whistler, painter.

1871: Marcel Proust, French novelist (“Remembrance of Things Past”).

1875: Mary McLeod Bethune, educator, founder of Bethune-Cookman College and the National Council of Negro Women.

1905: Ivie Anderson, jazz singer.

1915: Saul Bellow, writer.

1920: David Brinkley, broadcaster.

1927: David Dinkins, first African American mayor of New York City.

1931: Alice Munro, Canadian writer (“Open Secrets,” “Friend of my Youth”).

1933: Jerry Herman, songwriter.

1943: Arthur Ashe, American tennis player.

1947: Folk singer Arlo Guthrie (“Alice’s Restaurant,” “City of New Orleans”), son of Woody Guthrie.

1965: Alexia, princess of Greece and Denmark.

1980: Adam Petty, race driver, first fourth-generation driver in NASCAR history; his death in 2000 contributed to NASCAR’s decision to mandate a kill switch on steering wheels.

Johnson Newspapers 7.1

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