1627: Sir George Calvert arrives in Newfoundland to develop his land grant.
1637: King Charles of England hands over the American colony of Massachusetts to Sir Ferdinando Gorges, one of the founders of the Council of New England.
1664: Wealthy nonchurch members in Massachusetts are given the right to vote.
1793: The French garrison at Mainz, Germany, falls to the Prussians.
1803: Irish patriots throughout the country rebel against union with Great Britain.
1829: William A. Burt patents his “typographer,” an early typewriter.
1849: German rebels in Baden capitulate to the Prussians.
1863: Bill Anderson and his Confederate Bushwhackers gut the railway station at Renick, Missouri.
1865: William Booth founds the Salvation Army.
1868: The 14th Amendment is ratified, granting citizenship to African Americans.
1885: Ulysses S. Grant dies of throat cancer at the age of 63.
1894: Japanese troops take over the Korean imperial palace.
1903: The Ford Motor Company sells its first automobile, the Model A.
1944: Soviet troops take Lublin, Poland as the German army retreats.
1962: The Geneva Conference on Laos forbids the United States to invade eastern Laos.
1995: Two astronomers, Alan Hale in New Mexico and Thomas Bopp in Arizona, almost simultaneously discover a comet.
Born on July 23
1834: James Gibbons, American religious leader and founder of Catholic University.
1886: Arthur Whitten Brown, British aviator.
1888: Raymond Chandler, detective writer, creator of Philip Marlow.
1891: Haile Selassie, emperor of Ethiopia.
1906: Marston Bates, American zoologist, author (“The Nature of Natural History”).
1939: Nicholas Gage, journalist and author (“Eleni”).
1940: John Nichols, novelist and essayist (“The Milagro Beanfield War”).
1944: Lisa Alther, novelist (“Kinflicks”).