1765: English Prime Minister Lord Grenville resigns and is replaced by Lord Rockingham.
1774: Russia and the Ottoman Empire sign the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji, ending their six-year war.
1779: American troops under Gen. Anthony Wayne capture Stony Point, New York.
1875: The new French constitution is finalized.
1882:Mary Todd Lincoln, the widow of Abraham Lincoln, dies of a stroke.
1918: Czar Nicholas II and his family are murdered by Bolsheviks at Ekaterinburg, Russia.
1940: Adolf Hitler orders preparations for the invasion of England.
1944: Soviet troops occupy Vilnius, Lithuania, in their drive toward Germany.
1945: The United States detonates the first atomic bomb in a test at Alamogordo, New Mexico.
1969: Apollo 11 blasts off from Cape Kennedy, Florida, heading for a landing on the moon.
1999: A private plane piloted by John F. Kennedy Jr. is lost over the waters off Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts.
Born on July 16
1723: Joshua Reynolds, British portrait painter.
1821: Mary Baker Eddy, founder of the Christian Science movement.
1862: Ida Bell Wells, journalist.
1896: Trygve Lie, first secretary-general of the United Nations.
1907: Barbara Stanwyck, actress.
1911: Ginger Rogers, actress and dancer.
1928: Anita Brookner, writer (“Hotel du Lac”).
1941: Dag Solstad, Norwegian novelist and playwright.
1948: Ruben Blades, songwriter and actor.
1948: Pinchas Zukerman, violinist and conductor.