1588: The Spanish Armada is sighted off the coast of England.
1602: The Duke of Biron is executed in Paris for conspiring with Spain and Savoy against King Henry IV of France.
1603: Bartholomew Gilbert is killed in Virginia by Indians during a search for the missing Roanoke colonists.
1693: The Army of the Grand Alliance is destroyed by the French at the Battle of Neerwinden.
1830: Liberals led by the Marquis de Lafayette seize Paris in opposition to the king’s restrictions on citizens’ rights.
1848: A rebellion against British rule is put down in Tipperary, Ireland.
1858: Japan signs a treaty of commerce and friendship with the United States.
1862: Confederates are routed by Union guerrillas at Moore’s Mill, Missouri.
1875: Peasants in Bosnia and Herzegovina rebel against the Ottoman army.
1915: U.S. Marines land at Port-au-Prince to protect American interests in Haiti.
1921: Adolf Hitler becomes the president of the Nationalist Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazis).
1945: After delivering parts of the first atomic bomb to the island of Tinian, the USS Indianapolis is sunk by a Japanese submarine. The survivors are adrift for two days before help arrives.
1981: Prince Charles marries Lady Diana Spencer.
1990: The Boston Red Sox hit 12 doubles in a game, setting a major league record.
1996: A U.S. federal court strikes down the child protection portion of the 1996 Communications Decency Act, calling it too broad.
2005: Astronomers announce the discovery of dwarf planet Eris, leading the International Astronomic Union to clarify the definition of a planet.
Born on July 29
1805: Alexis de Tocqueville, French historian (“Democracy in America”).
1877: Charles William Beebe, American biologist, explorer and writer.
1878: Don Marquis, novelist and poet.
1883: Benito Mussolini, dictator of Italy (1922-1945).
1887: Sigmund Romberg, composer.
1900: Owen Lattimore, writer.
1905: Dag Hammarskjold, Nobel Peace Prize winner, secretary-general of the United Nations (1953-1961).
1905: Stanley Kunitz, poet.
1909: Chester Himes, author (“Cotton Comes to Harlem,” “If He Hollers, Let Him Go”).
1918: Edwin Greene O’Connor, author (“The Last Hurrah”).
1918: Mary Lee Settle, novelist.
1920: Hank Ketcham, cartoonist, creator of “Dennis the Menace.”
1930: Paul Taylor, choreographer and dancer.
1936: Elizabeth Hanford Dole, U.S. secretary of transportation (1983-1987), secretary of labor (1989-1990), unsuccessful candidate for Republican presidential nomination (2000), U.S. senator (2003-2009).
1938: Peter Jennings, ABC evening news anchor.
1953: Ken Burns, documentary filmmaker (“The Civil War,” “Baseball,” “The War,” “The Dust Bowl”).
1966: Richard Steven Horvitz, actor, voice-over actor in video-games (Halo 4) and television cartoons (“The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy”).