1223: In France, Louis VIII succeeds his father, Philip Augustus.
1430: Joan of Arc, taken prisoner by the Burgundians in May, is handed over to Pierre Cauchon, the bishop of Beauvais.
1456: Hungarians defeat the Ottomans at the Battle of Belgrade, in present-day Serbia.
1536: France and Portugal sign the Treaty of Lyons, aligning themselves against Spain.
1789: The Bastille, a fortress in Paris used to hold political prisoners, is stormed by a mob.
1798: The Sedition Act is passed by the U.S. Congress.
1864: At Harrisburg, Mississippi, Federal troops under Gen. Andrew Jackson Smith repulse an attack by Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest.
1900: European Allies retake Tientsin, China, from the rebelling Boxers.
1933: Nazi Germany promulgates the Law for the Protection of Hereditary Health –– the beginning of the euthanasia program.
1938: Howard Hughes and crew set a new world record for an around-the-world flight.
1940: A force of German bombers attacks Suez, Egypt, from bases in Crete.
1941: Vichy French Foreign Legionaries sign an armistice in Damascus, allowing them to join the Free French Foreign Legion.
1945: American battleships and cruisers bombard the Japanese home islands for the first time.
1951: The George Washington Carver National Monument in Joplin, Missouri becomes the first national park honoring an African American.
1964: The United States sends 600 more troops to Vietnam.
Born on July 14
1858: Emmeline Pankhurst, founder of the Women’s Social and Political Union.
1860: Owen Wister, novelist (“The Virginian”).
1903: Irving Stone, biographical novelist.
1904: Isaac Singer, Polish-born American writer.
1912: Woodrow Wilson “Woody” Guthrie, American folk singer.
1913: Gerald Ford, 38th president of the United States (1974-1977).
1916: Natalia Ginzburg, Italian novelist (“The Dry Heat,” “Family Sayings”).
1918: Ingmar Bergman, Swedish film director (“The Seventh Seal,” “Fanny and Alexander”).
1918: Arthur Laurents, writer and librettist.