240: Eratosthenes estimates the circumference of Earth using two sticks.
1778: Gen. George Washington’s troops finally leave Valley Forge after a winter of training.
1821: The Ottomans defeat the Greeks at the Battle of Dragasani.
1846: The New York Knickerbocker Club plays the New York Club in the first baseball game at Elysian Field, Hoboken, New Jersey.
1861: Virginians, in what will soon be West Virginia, elect Francis Pierpont as their provisional governor.
1862: President Abraham Lincoln outlines his Emancipation Proclamation. News of the document reaches the South.
1864: The USS Kearsarge sinks the CSS Alabama off of Cherbourg, France.
1867: Mexican Emperor Maximilian is executed.
1885: The Statue of Liberty arrives in New York City from France.
1903: The young school teacher Benito Mussolini is placed under investigation by police in Bern, Switzerland.
1919: Mustafa Kemal founds the Turkish National Congress at Ankara and denounces the Treaty of Versailles.
1933: France grants Leon Trotsky political asylum.
1934: The National Archives and Records Administration is established.
1937: The town of Bilbao, Spain, falls to the Nationalist forces.
1942: Prime Minister Winston Churchill arrives in Washington D.C. to discuss the invasion of North Africa with President Franklin Roosevelt.
1944: U.S. Navy carrier-based planes shatter the remaining Japanese carrier forces in the Battle of the Marianas.
1951: President Harry S. Truman signs the Universal Military Training and Service Act, which extends Selective Service until July 1, 1955, and lowers the draft age to 18.
1958: Nine entertainers refuse to answer a congressional committee’s questions on communism.
1961: Kuwait regains complete independence from Britain.
1963: Soviet cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova becomes the first woman in space.
1965: Air Marshall Nguyen Cao Ky becomes South Vietnam’s youngest premier at age 34.
1968: Over 50,000 people march on Washington, D.C. to support the Poor People’s Campaign.
1973: The Case-Church Amendment prevents further U.S. involvement in Southeast Asia.
1987: The U.S. Supreme Court voids the Louisiana law requiring schools to teach creationism.
1995: The Richmond Virginia Planning Commission approves plans to place a memorial statue of tennis professional Arthur Ashe.
Born on June 19
1566: James I, king of England (1603-1625).
1623: Blaise Pascal, French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher.
1897: Moe Howard, comic actor, one of the Three Stooges.
1900: Laura Hobson, novelist (“Gentleman’s Agreement”).
1903: Henry Louis Gehrig, professional baseball player.
1919: Pauline Kael, American film critic, author.
1945: Aung San Suu Kyi, Myanmar human rights activist, Nobel Peace Prize recipient (1991).
1945: Tobias Wolff, American writer (“This Boy’s Life: A Memoir,” “The Night in Question”).
1947: Salman Rushdie, British author (“Midnight’s Children,” “The Satanic Verses”).