1468: Lorenzo the Magnificent and his brother Giuliano succeed their father, Piero de Medici, as rulers of Florence, Italy.
1762: France cedes to Spain all lands west of the Mississippi--the territory known as Upper Louisiana.
1800: The French defeat an Austrian army at the Battle of Hohenlinden, near Munich.
1818: Illinois is admitted into the Union as the 21st state.
1847: Frederick Douglass and Martin R. Delaney establish the North Star, and anti-slavery paper.
1862: Confederate raiders attack a Federal forage train on the Hardin Pike near Nashville, Tennessee.
1863: Confederate Gen. James Longstreet moves his army east and north toward Greeneville. This withdrawal marks the end of the Fall Campaign in Tennessee.
1864: Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman meets with slight resistance from Confederate troops at Thomas Station on his march to the sea.
1906: The U.S. Supreme Court orders Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) leaders extradited to Idaho for trial in the Steunenberg murder case.
1915: The United States expels German attaches on spy charges.
1916: French commander Joseph Joffre is dismissed after his failure at the Somme. Gen. Robert Nivelle is the new French commander in chief.
1918: The Allied Conference, where they decide that Germany must pay for the war, ends in London.
1925: The League of Nations orders Greece to pay an indemnity for the October invasion of Bulgaria.
1926: British reports claim that German soldiers are being trained in the Soviet Union.
1950: The Chinese close in on Pyongyang, Korea, and U.N. forces withdraw southward.
1965: The National Council of Churches asks the United States to halt the massive bombings in North Vietnam.
1977: The State Department proposes the admission of 10,000 more Vietnamese refugees to the United States.
1979: Eleven are killed and eight injured in a mad rush to see a rock band (The Who) at a concert in Cincinnati, Ohio.
1984: Toxic gas leaks from a Union Carbide plant and results in the deaths of thousands in Bhopal, India.
1989: Presidents George Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev announce the official end to the Cold War at a meeting in Malta.
1992: A test engineer for Sema Group sends the world’s first text message, using a personal computer and the Vodafone network.
1997: Representatives of 121 nations sign the Ottawa Treaty prohibiting the manufacture or deployment of antipersonnel landmines; the People’s Republic of China, the U.S. and the USSR do not sign.
2005: The first manned rocket aircraft delivery of U.S. mail takes place in Mojave, California.
2009: A suicide bombing in Mogadishu, Somalia, kills 25 people, including three ministers of the Transitional Federal Government.
Born on December 3
1755: Gilbert Stewart, portrait painter.
1826: George B. McClellan, Union general who defeated Robert E. Lee at Antietam and ran against Abraham Lincoln for president.
1833: Carlos Juan Finlay, Cuban epidemiologist.
1857: Joseph Conrad, Polish-born novelist (“Heart of Darkness,” “Nostromo”).
1922: Sven Nykvist, Swedish cinematographer.
1925: Jean-Luc Godard, French film director (“Breathless”).
1933: Paul Crutzen, Dutch chemist.
1934: Abimael Guzman (Presidente Gonzalo), leader of the Shining Path Maoist guerrilla insurgency in Peru.
1937: Morgan Llywelyn, American-born Irish author noted for historical fantasy and historical fiction novels, as well as historical nonfiction (“1921”); received Exceptional Celtic Woman of the Year award (1999).
1948: Ozzy Osbourne, singer, songwriter, actor; member of the influential rock band Black Sabbath; an MTV reality show, “The Osbournes,” followed the lives of the singer and his family (2002-05).
1951: Rick Mears, race car driver; three-time Indycar national champion (1979, 1981, 1982).
1960: Daryl Hannah, actress (“Blade Runner,” “Steel Magnolias”).
1963: Terri Schiavo, who became the focus of a 15-year legal struggle over the question of artificially prolonging the life of a patient, Schiavo, whom doctors had diagnosed as being in a persistent vegetative state.
1973: Holly Marie Combs, actress, TV producer (“Charmed”; “Pretty Little Liars” TV series).
2005: Prince Sverre Magnus, third in line of succession to the Norwegian throne.