69: Vespasian, a Roman army leader, is hailed as a Roman emperor by the Egyptian legions.
1543: England and Scotland sign the Peace of Greenwich.
1596: An English fleet under the Earl of Essex, Lord Howard of Effingham and Francis Vere capture and sack Cadiz, Spain.
1690: Led by Marshall Luxembourg, the French defeat the forces of the Grand Alliance at Fleurus in the Netherlands.
1777: British troops depart from their base at the Bouquet River to head toward Ticonderoga, New York.
1798: Napoleon Bonaparte takes Alexandria, Egypt.
1838: Charles Darwin presents a paper on his theory of evolution to the Linnean Society in London.
1862: Union artillery stops a Confederate attack at Malvern Hill, Virginia.
1863: In the first day’s fighting at Gettysburg, Federal forces retreat through the town and dig in at Cemetery Ridge and Cemetery Hill.
1867: Canada, by the terms of the British North America Act, becomes an independent dominion.
1876: Montenegro declares war on the Turks.
1898: American troops take San Juan Hill and El Caney, Cuba, from the Spaniards.
1916: The Battle of the Somme begins. Approximately 30,000 men are killed on the first day, two-thirds of them British.
1942: Axis troops capture Sevastopol, Crimea, in the Soviet Union.
1945: The New York State Commission Against Discrimination is established –– the first such agency in the United States.
1950: American ground troops arrive in South Korea to halt the advancing North Korean army.
1961: British troops land in Kuwait to aid against Iraqi threats.
1963: The U.S. postmaster introduces the ZIP code.
1966: U.S. Marines launch Operation Holt in an attempt to finish off a Vietcong battalion in Thua Thien Province in Vietnam.
Born on July 1
1649: Gottfried Von Leibniz, German philosopher and mathematician.
1804: George Sand (Amandine-Aurore Lucile Dupin), French novelist.
1876: Susan Glaspell, playwright, (“Alison’s House”).
1892: James M. Cain, author (“The Postman Always Rings Twice,” “Mildred Pierce”).
1899: Thomas Dorsey, American songwriter, singer and pianist, the “father of gospel music.”
1902: William Wyler, film director (“The Best Years of Our Lives,” “Ben Hur”).
1903: Amy Johnson, English aviator.
1915: Sydney Pollack, film director (“Tootsie,” “Out of Africa”).
1915: Jean Stafford, American writer (“The Mountain Lion”).
1915: Willie Dixon, blues musician.
1916: Roland Robert Tuck, British fighter ace during World War II.
1961: Diana Frances Spencer, princess of Wales.