November 2

1570: A tidal wave in the North Sea destroys the sea walls from Holland to Jutland. More than 1,000 people are killed.

1772: The first Committees of Correspondence are formed in Massachusetts under Samuel Adams.

1789: The property of the church in France is taken away by the state.

1841: The second Afghan War begins.

1869: Sheriff Wild Bill Hickok loses his reelection bid in Ellis County, Kansas.

1880: James A. Garfield is elected the 20th president of the United States.

1882: Newly elected John Poe replaces Pat Garrett as sheriff of Lincoln County, New Mexico Territory.

1889: North Dakota is made the 39th state.

1889: South Dakota is made the 40th state.

1892: Lawmen surround outlaws Ned Christie and Arch Wolf near Tahlequah, Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). It will take dynamite and a cannon to dislodge the two from their cabin.

1903: London’s Daily Mirror newspaper is first published.

1914: Russia declares war with Turkey.

1920: The first radio broadcast in the United States is made from Pittsburgh.

1920: Charlotte Woodward, who signed the 1848 Seneca Falls Declaration calling for female voting rights, casts her ballot in a presidential election.

1921: Margaret Sanger and Mary Ware Dennett form the American Birth Control League.

1923: U.S. Navy aviator H.J. Brown sets new world speed record of 259 mph in a Curtiss racer.

1926: The Air Commerce Act is passed, providing federal aid for airlines and airports.

1936: The first high-definition public television transmissions begin from Alexandra Palace in north London by the BBC.

1942: Lt. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower arrives in Gibraltar to set up an American command post for the invasion of North Africa.

1943: The Battle of Empress Augusta Bay in Bougainville ends in U.S. Navy victory over Japan.

1947: Howard Hughes’ Spruce Goose flies for the first and last time.

1948: Harry S Truman is elected the 33rd president of the United States.

1959: Charles Van Doren confesses that the TV quiz show “21” is fixed and that he had been given the answers to the questions asked him.

1960: A British jury determines that “Lady Chatterly’s Lover” by D.H. Lawrence is not obscene.

1963: South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem is assassinated.

1976: Jimmy (James Earl) Carter elected the 39th president of the United States.

1983: President Ronald Reagan signs a bill establishing Martin Luther King Jr. Day.

1984: Serial killer Velma Barfield becomes the first woman executed in the U.S. since 1962.

2000: The first resident crew arrives at the International Space Station.

Born on November 2

1734: Daniel Boone, American frontiersman and explorer.

1755: Marie Antoinette, queen of France, executed during the French Revolution.

1795: James Polk, 11th president of the United States (1845-49).

1865: Warren G. Harding, 29th president of the United States (1921-23).

1885: Harlow Shapley, astronomer who discovered the sun is not at the center of the galaxy.

1906: Luchino Visconti, film director (“Obsession,” “Death in Venice”).

1913: Burt Lancaster, American film actor.

1929: Richard Taylor, Nobel Prize-winning physicist who proved the existence of quarks.

1932: Melvin Schwartz, physicist who won the Nobel Prize for work on neutrinos.

1936: Rose Bird, first female chief justice of California (1977-87); also the first chief justice in California history to be removed from office by voters.

1938: Queen Sofia of Spain (1975– ).

1938: Pat Buchanan, American conservative political commentator, syndicated columnist, author; a senior advisor to presidents Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Ronald Reagan.

1938: Jay Black, lead singer of the group Jay and the Americans (“Come a Little Bit Closer,” “This Magic Moment”).

1949: Lois McMaster Bujold, science fiction and fantasy author (“The Mountains of Morning,” “Paladin of Souls”); her many awards include four Hugos for best novel, which ties Robert A. Heinlein’s record.

1952: Maxine Nightingale, British R&B and soul singer (“Right Back Where We Started From”).

1961: k.d. lang, Grammy-winning Canadian pop and country singer-songwriter, actress, social activist (“Constant Craving”).

1972: Samantha Womack, English actress, singer, director (TV and stage); best known for her roles as Mandy Wilkins in “Game On” and Ronnie Mitchell in “EastEnders.”

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Johnson Newspapers 7.1

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